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Alan K. Knapp


Curriculum Vitae


Research Interests

Current research interests reflect my initial training as a Plant Physiological Ecologist and a two-decade association with large-scale ecosystem research through the NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program. Thus, traditional leaf-level gas exchange, plant water relations and energy balance studies have been a staple of our research for many years, with a focus on the elucidation of ecophysiological mechanisms that drive ecological processes and reflect evolutionary change. This approach has been broadened by involvement with the Konza Prairie LTER program. These interactions have provided our lab with a strong appreciation for collaborative, interdisciplinary research across broad spatial and temporal scales. Indeed, we now prefer to label ourselves as Plant Ecologists that are comfortable working at scales varying from the leaf to the landscape.

Collaborative, interdisciplinary research is appealing and important because it provides scientists the opportunity to make key contributions within the specific framework of a single discipline (a traditional approach), as well as the tools to synthesize across disciplines and tackle issues that the single lab approach cannot. This synthetic approach to Ecology will become more important in the future, and it best describes our group's current and future research interests.

 

Recent Publications

Koerner, S.E., S.L. Collins, J.M. Blair, A.K. Knapp and M.D. Smith. 2014. Rainfall variability has minimal effects on grassland recovery from repeated grazing. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 36–44.

Fraser, L.H., H. A. Henry, C. N. Carlyle, S. R. White, C. Beierkuhnlein, J.F. Cahill Jr., B.B. Casper, E. Cleland, S.L Collins, J.S. Dukes; A.K. Knapp, E. Lind, R. Long, Y. Luo, P.B. Reich, M.D. Smith, M. Sternberg, R. Turkington. 2013. Coordinated Distributed Experiments: an emerging tool for testing global hypotheses in ecology and environmental science. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 147-155.

Irschick, D.J., C. Fox, K. Thompson, A. Knapp, L. Baker and J. Meyer. 2013. Functional ecology: integrative research in the modern age of ecology. Functional Ecology 27: 1–4

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs and M.D. Smith. 2012. Community stability does not preclude ecosystem sensitivity to chronic resource alteration. Functional Ecology 26: 1231–1233.

Knapp, A.K., D.L. Hoover, J.M. Blair, G. Buis, D.E. Burkepile, A. Chamberlain, S.L. Collins, R.W.S. Fynn, K.P. Kirkman, M.D. Smith, D. Blake, N. Govender, P. O’Neal, T. Schreck, and A. Zinn. 2012. A test of two mechanisms proposed to optimize grassland aboveground primary production in response to grazing. Journal of Plant Ecology 5: 357–365.

Knapp, A.K., M.D. Smith, S.E. Hobbie, S.L. Collins, T.J. Fahey, G.J. A. Hansen, D.A. Landis, K.J. La Pierre, J.M. Melillo, T.R. Seastedt, G.R. Shaver and J.R. Webster. 2012. Past, present and future roles of long-term experiments in the LTER Network. BioScience 62: 377 - 389.

Cherwin, K. and A. Knapp. 2012. Unexpected patterns of sensitivity to drought in semi-arid grasslands. Oecologia 169: 845-852.

Melzer, S.E., O.A. Chadwick, A.S. Hartshorn, L. Khomo, A. K. Knapp and E.F. Kelly. 2012. Lithologic controls on biogenic silica cycling in South African savanna ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 108: 317-334.

Fay, P.A. J.M. Blair, M.D. Smith, J.B. Nippert, J.D. Carlisle, and A.K. Knapp. 2011. Relative effects of precipitation variability and warming on grassland ecosystem function. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 8: 3053-3068.

Barger, N.N., S.R. Archer, J.L. Campbell, C. Huang, J.A. Morton and A.K. Knapp. 2011. Woody plant proliferation in North American drylands: A synthesis of impacts on carbon balance. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 116: G00K07,
doi:10.1029/2010JG001506.

Collins, S.L., S.R. Carpenter, S.M. Swinton, D. Ornstein, D.L. Childers, T.L. Gragson, N.B. Grimm, J.M. Grove, S.L. Harlan, J.P. Kaye, A.K. Knapp, G.P. Kofinas, J.J. Magnuson, W.H. McDowell, J.M. Melack, L.A. Ogden, G.R. Robertson, M.D. Smith, A.C. Whitmer. 2011. An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:351-357.

Knapp, A.K. and C. D'Avanzo. 2010. Teaching with principles: toward more effective pedagogy in ecology. Ecosphere 1(6):art15. doi:10.1890/ES10-00013.1.

Travers, S.E., Z. Tang, D. Caragea, K.A. Garrett, S.H. Hulbert, J.E. Leach, J. Bai, A. Saleh, A.K. Knapp, P.A. Fay, J. Nippert, P.S. Schnable and M.D. Smith. 2010. Variation in gene expression of Andropogon gerardii in response to altered environmental
conditions associated with climate change. Journal of Ecology 98: 374-383.

Melzer, S.E., A.K. Knapp, R.W.S. Fynn, K.P. Kirkman, M.D. Smith, J.M. Blair, E.F. Kelly. 2010. Fire and grazing impacts on silica production and storage in grass dominated ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 97:263-278.

 Buis, G.M., J.M. Blair, D.E. Burkepile, C.E. Burns, A.J. Chamberlain, P.L. Chapman, S.L. Collins, R.W.S. Fynn, N. Govender, K.P. Kirkman, M.D. Smith and A.K. Knapp. 2009. Controls of aboveground net primary production in mesic savanna grasslands: an inter-hemispheric comparison. Ecosystems 12:982-995.

Scheintaub, M., J.D. Derner, E.F. Kelly and A.K. Knapp. 2009. Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. Journal of Arid Environments 73: 1136-1143.

Smith, M.D., A.K. Knapp and S.L. Collins. 2009. A framework for assessing ecosystem dynamics in response to chronic resource alterations induced by global change. Ecology 90:3279-3289.

Heisler-White, J.L., J.M. Blair, E.F. Kelly, K. Harmoney and A.K. Knapp. 2009. Contingent productivity responses to more extreme rainfall regimes across a grassland biome. Global Change Biology, submitted.

Baker, P.K., A.K. Knapp and J.M. Blair. 2009. Ecosystem consequences of invasive exotic species in grasslands. Biological Invasions, submitted.

Scheintaub, M., J.D. Derner, E.F. Kelly and A.K. Knapp. 2009. Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. Journal of Arid Environments, submitted.

Nippert, J.B., P.A. Fay, J.D. Carlisle, A.K. Knapp and M.D. Smith. 2009. Ecophysiological responses of two dominant grasses to altered temperature and precipitation regimes. Acta Oecologia, submitted.

Morisette, J. T., A.D. Richardson, A.K. Knapp, J.I. Fisher , E.A. Graham, J. Abatzoglou, B.E. Wilson, D.D. Breshears, G.M. Henebry, J.M. Hanes and L. Liang. 2009. Learning the rhythm of the seasons in the face of global change: phenological research in the 21st Century. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, in press.

Heisler-White, J.L., A.K. Knapp and E.F. Kelly. 2008. Increasing precipitation event size increases aboveground net primary productivity in a semi-arid grassland. Oecologia 158:129-140.

Swemmer, A.M. and A.K. Knapp. 2008. Defoliation synchronizes above-ground growth of co-occurring C4 grass species. Ecology 89:2860-2867.

Knapp, A.K., C. Beier, D.D. Briske, A.T. Classen, Y. Luo, M. Reichstein, M.D. Smith, S.D. Smith, J.E. Bell, P.A. Fay, J.L. Heisler, S.W Leavitt, R. Sherry, B. Smith and E. Weng. 2008. Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems. BioScience 58: 811-821.

Luo, Y., D. Gerten, G. le Maire, W. J. Parton, E. Weng, X. Zhou, C. Keough, C. Beier, P. Ciais, W. Cramer, J. S. Dukes, B. Emmett, P. J. Hanson, A. Knapp, S. Linder, D. Nepstad, L. Rustad. 2008. Modelled effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones. Part II: Interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and CO2. Global Change Biology 14:1986-1999.

Gerten, D, Y. Luo, G. Le Maire, W.J. Parton, C. Keough, E. Weng, C. Beier, P. Ciais, W. Cramer, J.S. Dukes, B. Emmett, P. J. Hanson, A. Knapp, S. Linder, D. Nepstad, L. Rustad. 2008. Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones. Global Change Biology 14: 1-15.

Heisler, J.L. and A.K. Knapp. 2008. Temporal coherence of aboveground net primary productivity in mesic grasslands. Ecography 31:408-416.

Hutchinson, S.L., J.K. Koelliker, and A.K. Knapp. 2008. Development of water usage coefficients for a fully-watered tallgrass prairie. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 51: 153-159.

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, S.L. Collins, S.R. Archer, M.S. Bret-Harte, B.E. Ewers, D.P. Peters, D.R. Young, G.R. Shaver, E. Pendall, M.B. Cleary. 2008. Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: Shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs. Global Change Biology 14:615-623.

Heisler, J.L., A.K. Knapp, and J.M. Briggs. 2007. Fire and resource availability influence carbon and water relations of the C3 shrub roughleaf dogwood in a mesic grassland. Pages 86-93 in R.E. Masters and K.E.M. Galley (eds.). Proceedings of the 23rd Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference: Fire in grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Knapp, A.K. 2007. A match made in academia: you and your graduate advisor - Faculty response. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 391.

Nippert, J.B. and A.K. Knapp. 2007. Linking water uptake with rooting patterns in grassland species. Oecologia 153:261-272.

Swemmer, A.M., A.K. Knapp and H.A. Snyman. 2007. Intra-seasonal precipitation patterns and aboveground productivity in three perennial grasslands. Journal of Ecology 95: 780-788.

Nippert, J.B. and A.K. Knapp. 2007. Soil water partitioning contributes to species coexistence in tallgrass prairie. Oikos 116: 1017-1029.

Nippert, J.B., P.A. Fay and A.K. Knapp. 2007. Photosynthetic traits in C3 and C4 grassland species in mesocosm and field environments. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60: 412-420.

Travers, S.E., M.D. Smith, J. Bai, S.H. Hulbert, J.E. Leach, P.S. Schnable, A.K. Knapp, G.A. Milliken, P.A. Fay, A. Saleh and K.A. Garrett. 2007. Ecological genomics: making the leap from model systems in the lab to native populations in the field. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:19-24.

Swemmer, A. M., A.K. Knapp and M.D. Smith. 2006. Growth responses of two dominant C4 grass species to altered water availability. International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 1001-1010.

Knapp, A.K., C. E. Burns, R.W. S. Fynn, K.P. Kirkman, C. D. Morris and M. D. Smith. 2006. Convergence and contingency in production-precipitation relationships in North American and South African C4 grasslands. Oecologia 149: 456-464.

Carter, G.A., A.K. Knapp, J.E. Anderson, G.A. Hoch and M.D. Smith. 2006. Indicators of plant species richness in AVIRIS spectra of a mesic grassland. Remote Sensing of Environment 98: 304-316.

Nippert, J.B., A. K. Knapp and J.M. Briggs. 2006. Intra-annual rainfall variability and grassland productivity: can the past predict the future? Plant Ecology 184: 65-74.

Baer, S.G., S.L. Collins, J.M. Blair, A.K. Knapp, and A. Fiedler. 2005. Soil heterogeneity effects on tallgrass prairie community heterogeneity: an application of ecological theory to restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 13: 413-424.

Lett, M. S. and A.K. Knapp. 2005. Woody plant encroachment and removal in mesic grassland: production and composition responses of herbaceous vegetation. American Midland Naturalist 153: 217-231.

Briggs, J.M., A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair, J.L. Heisler, G.A. Hoch, M.S. Lett, J.K. McCarron. 2005. An ecosystem in transition: causes and consequences of the conversion of mesic grassland to shrubland. BioScience 55: 243-254.

McCulley, R.L., I.C. Burke, J.A. Nelson, W.K. Lauenroth, A.K. Knapp and E.F. Kelly. 2005. Regional patterns in carbon cycling across the Great Plains of North America. Ecosystems 8: 106-121.

Harper C.W., J.M. Blair, P.A. Fay, A.K. Knapp, J.D. Carlisle. 2005. Increased rainfall variability and reduced rainfall amount decreases soil CO2 flux in a grassland ecosystem. Global Change Biology 11:322-334.

Silletti, A.M., A.K. Knapp and J.M. Blair. 2004. Competition and coexistence in grassland co-dominants: responses to neighbor removal and resource availability. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 450-460.

Knapp, A.K., M. D. Smith, S. L. Collins, N. Zambatis, M. Peel, S. Emery, J. Wojdak, M. C. Horner-Devine, H. Biggs, J. Kruger, and S.J. Andelman. 2004. Generality in ecology: testing North American grassland rules in South African savannas. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 483-491.

Lett, M.S., A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs and J.M. Blair. 2004. Influence of shrub encroachment on aboveground net primary productivity and carbon and nitrogen pools in a mesic grassland. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1363-1370.

Heisler, J.L., J.M. Briggs, A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair and A. Seery. 2004. Direct and indirect effects of fire on shrub density and aboveground productivity in a mesic grassland. Ecology 85: 2245-2257.

Smith, M.D., J. Wilcox, T. Kelly and A.K. Knapp. 2004. Dominance not diversity determines invasibility of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 106: 253-262.

Morgan, J.A., D.E. Pataki, C. Körner, H. Clark, S.J. Del Grosso, J.M.Grünzweig, A.K. Knapp, A.R. Mosier, P.C.D. Newton, P.A. Niklaus, J. Nippert, R.S. Nowak, W. Parton, W. Polley, R. Shaw. 2004. Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia 140:11-25.

Huxman, T.E., M.D. Smith, P.A. Fay, A.K. Knapp, M.R. Shaw, M.E. Loik, S.D. Smith, D.T. Tissue, J.C. Zak, J.F. Weltzin, W.T. Pockman, O.E. Sala, B.M. Haddad, J. Harte, G.W. Koch, S. Schwinning, E.E. Small, and D.G. Williams. 2004. Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency. Nature 429: 651-654.

Baer, S.G., J. M. Blair, S. L. Collins, A. K. Knapp. 2004. Plant community responses to resource availability and heterogeneity during restoration. Oecologia 139: 617-629.

Bakker, C., J.M. Blair and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Does resource availability, resource heterogeneity or species turnover mediate changes in plant species richness in grazed grasslands? Oecologia 137:385-391.

McCarron, J.K., A.K. Knapp and J.M. Blair. 2003. Soil C and N responses to woody plant expansion in a mesic grassland. Plant and Soil 257:183-192.

Weltzin, J. F., M. E. Loik, S. Schwinning, D. G. Williams, P. Fay, B. Haddad, J. Harte, T. E. Huxman, A. K. Knapp, G. Lin, W. T. Pockman, M. R. Shaw, E. Small, M. D. Smith, S. D. Smith, D. T. Tissue and J. C. Zak. 2003. Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation. BioScience 53: 941-952.

Fay, P.A., J.D. Carlisle, A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair and S.L. Collins. 2003. Productivity responses to altered rainfall patterns in a C4-dominated grassland. Oecologia 137: 245-251.

McCarron, J.K. and A.K. Knapp. 2003. C3 shrub expansion in a C4 grassland: positive post-fire responses in resources and shoot growth. American Journal of Botany 90: 1496-1501.

Lett, M. S. and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Consequences of shrub expansion in mesic grassland: resource alterations and graminoid responses. Journal of Vegetation Science 14: 487-496.

Quist, M.C., P.A. Fay, C.S. Guy, A.K. Knapp and B.N. Rubenstein. 2003. Military training effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities on a grassland military installation. Ecological Applications 13: 432-442.

Baer, S.G., J.M. Blair, S.L. Collins and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Soil resources regulate productivity and diversity in newly established tallgrass prairie. Ecology 84: 724-735.

Smith, M.D. and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Dominant species maintain ecosystem function with non-random species loss. Ecology Letters 6: 509-517.

Danner, B.T. and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Abiotic constraints on the establishment of Quercus seedlings in grassland. Global Change Biology 9: 266-275.

Heisler, J.L., J.M. Briggs and A.K. Knapp. 2003. Long-term patterns of shrub expansion in a C4-dominated grassland: fire frequency and the dynamics of shrub cover and abundance. American Journal of Botany 90: 423-428.

Foster, D., F. Swanson, J. Aber, I. Burke, N. Brokaw, D. Tilman, and A. Knapp. 2003. The importance of land-use legacies to ecology and conservation. BioScience 53: 77-88.

Knapp, A.K., P.A. Fay, J.M. Blair, S. L. Collins, M. D. Smith, J. D. Carlisle, C. W. Harper, B. T. Danner, M.S. Lett and J. K. McCarron. 2002. Rainfall variability, carbon cycling and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland. Science 298: 2202-2205.

Silletti, A.M. and A.K. Knapp. 2002. Long-term responses of the grassland co-dominants Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans to changes in climate and management. Plant Ecology 163: 15-22.

Fay, P.A., J.D. Carlisle, B.T. Danner, M.S. Lett, J.K. McCarron, C. Stewart, A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair and S.L. Collins. 2002. Altered rainfall patterns, gas exchange and growth in C3 and C4 grassland species. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163: 549-557.

Van der Hoek, D.C.J., A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs and J. Bokdam. 2002. White-tailed deer browsing on six shrub species of tallgrass prairie. Great Plains Research 12: 141-156.

Briggs, J.M., A.K. Knapp and B.L. Brock. 2002. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: a 15 year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. American Midland Naturalist 147: 287-294.

Danner, B.T. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Carbon and water relations of juvenile Quercus species in tallgrass prairie. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 807-816.

McCarron, J.K. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. C3 woody plant expansion in a C4 grassland: are grasses and shrubs functionally distinct? American Journal of Botany 88: 1818-1823.

Danner, B.T. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Growth dynamics of gallery forest oak seedlings (Quercus macrocarpa Michx. and Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm.) from gallery forests: implications for forest expansion into grasslands. Trees 15: 271-277.

Smith, M.D. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Physiological and morphological traits of exotic, invasive exotic and native plants species in tallgrass prairie. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: 785-792.

Briggs, J.M. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Determinants of C3 forb growth and production in a C4 dominated grassland. Plant Ecology 152:93-100.

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs and J.K. Koelliker. 2001. Frequency and extent of water limitation to primary production in a mesic temperate grassland. Ecosystems 4:19-28.

Carter, G.A. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Leaf optical properties in higher plants: linking spectral characteristics to stress and chlorophyll concentration. American Journal of Botany 88: 677-684.

Silletti, A.M. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Responses of the co-dominant grassland species Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans to long-term manipulations of nitrogen and water. American Midland Naturalist 145: 159-167.

Smith, M.D. and A.K. Knapp. 2001. Size of the local species pool determines invasibility of a C4-dominated grassland. Oikos 92: 55-61.

Knapp, A.K. and M.D. Smith. 2001. Variation among biomes in temporal dynamics of aboveground primary production. Science 291: 481-484.

Fay, P.A., J.D. Carlisle, A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair and S.L. Collins. 2000. Altered rainfall timing and quantity in a mesic grassland ecosystem: design and performance of rainfall manipulation shelters. Ecosystems 3:308-319.

Blair, J.M., S.L. Collins and A.K. Knapp. 2000. Ecosystems as functional units in nature. Natural Resources & Environment 14: 150-155.

Maragni, L.A., A.K. Knapp and C.A. McAllister. 2000. Patterns and determinants of potential carbon gain in the C3 evergreen,Yucca glauca (Liliaceae), in a C4 grassland. American Journal of Botany 87: 230-236.

Books and Book Chapters

Peters D.P.C., B.T. Bestelmeyer, A.K. Knapp, J.E. Herrick, H.C. Monger and K.M. Havstad. 2008. Approaches to predicting broad-scale regime shifts using changing pattern-process relationships across scales. In press in S. Miao, S. Carstenn and M. Nungesser (eds.) Real World Ecology: Design and Analyses of Large-Scale and Long-Term Research. Springer-Verlag, NY.  

Knapp A.K., J.K. McCarron, A.M. Silletti, G.A. Hoch, J.L. Heisler, M.S. Lett, J.M. Blair, J.M. Briggs and M.D. Smith. 2008. Ecological consequences of the replacement of native grassland by Juniperus virginiana and other woody plants. Pages 156-169 in O.W. Van Auken (ed.) Ecological Studies Vol. 196, Western North American Juniperus communities: A dynamic vegetation type. Springer-Verlag, NY.   

Knapp, A.K., J. M. Briggs, D. L. Childers and O. E. Sala. 2007. Estimating aboveground net primary production in grassland and herbaceous dominated ecosystems. Pages 27-48 in T.J. Fahey, and A.K. Knapp (eds.) Principles and Standards for Measuring Net Primary Production. Oxford University Press, NY.

Fahey, T.J. and A.K. Knapp. 2007. Principles and Standards for Measuring Net Primary Production. Oxford University Press, NY, 268 pages. Fahey, T.J. and A. K. Knapp. 2007. Primary production: Guiding principles and standards for measurement. Pages 3-11 in T.J. Fahey, and A.K. Knapp (eds.) Principles and Standards for Measuring Net Primary Production. Oxford University Press, NY.  

Fay, P.A., A.K. Knapp, J.M. Blair, J.D. Carlisle, J.K. McCarron, B.T. Danner. 2003. Rainfall Timing, Soil Moisture Dynamics, and Plant Responses in a Mesic Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem. Pages 147-163 in J. Weltzin and G. McPherson (eds.) Changing Precipitation Regimes and Terrestrial Ecosystems, University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, AZ.

Seastedt, T.R., B.P. Hayden, C.E. Owensby and A.K. Knapp. 1998. Climate change, elevated CO2 and predictive modeling: past and future climate change scenarios for the tallgrass prairie. Pages 283-300 in A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S.L. Collins (eds.) Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, NY. 

Collins, S.L., A.K. Knapp, D.C. Hartnett and J.M. Briggs. 1998. The dynamic tallgrass prairie: synthesis and research opportunities. Pages 301-315 in A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S.L. Collins (eds.) Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, NY. 

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, J.M. Blair and C.Turner. 1998. Patterns and controls of aboveground net primary production in tallgrass prairie. Pages 193-221 in A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S.L. Collins (eds.) Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, NY. 

Knapp, A.K. and T.R. Seastedt. 1998. Grasslands, Konza Prairie and long-term ecological research. Pages 3-15 in A.K. Knapp, J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S.L. Collins (eds.) Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, NY.

Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S.L. Collins. 1998. Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, NY, 364 pages.

Knapp, A.K. and P.A. Fay. 1997. Plant strategies for coping with variable light regimes. Pages 191-212 in A.S. Basra and R.K. Basra (eds.), Mechanisms of Environmental Stress Resistance in Plants, Harwood Academic Publ., UK. 

Owensby, C.E., J.M. Ham, A.K. Knapp, C.W. Rice, P.I. Coyne and L.M. Auen. 1996. Ecosystem level responses of tallgrass prairie to elevated CO2. Pages 147-162 in G.W. Koch and H.A. Mooney (eds.), Terrestrial ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Academic Press, London. 

Smith, W.K. and A.K. Knapp. 1990. Ecophysiology of high elevation forests. Pages 87-142 in Plant Biology of the Basin and Range, C.B. Osmond et al. (eds.). Ecological Studies Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.